Saline County Kansas

Official County Government Website

Photo Courtesy Of Marciana Vequist
You are here: Departments > Planning and Zoning > Floodplain

Letters of Map Change, Amendment & Revision (LOMC, LOMA, LOMR)

A Letter Of Map Change (LOMC) is a FEMA application that can remove a structure or portion of your land from the floodplain.  There are two common types of LOMCs:

  • Letters Of Map Amendment (LOMA) are used when the ground around your structure or a surveyed piece of ground is naturally higher than the floodplain.  There is no charge for a LOMA
  • Letters Of Map Revision (LOMR) are used when fill dirt is added around the structure or property to bring it out of the floodplain.  FEMA charges a fee to review these applications. 

Both applications will need to be handled by a surveyor of your choice.  The surveyor will typically handle all of the application process with FEMA.  FEMA will provide you and the county with a letter approving or rejcting the application.

For more information on LOMC application call the Saline County Floodplain Manager at 785.309.5813 or visit FEMA's website at:

 https://www.fema.gov/letter-map-changes.

 

Floodplain Permits

Saline County Floodplain Permits are required for any proposed construction or other development, including placement of manufactured homes.  This includes fill dirt, fencing, and any man made alteration to the property.  The Saline County Floodplain Administrator will assist you with permit applications.  You can call with questions at 785.309.5813.

 

Saline County Agricultural and Residential Permit Application Guide.

Saline County Commercial Permit Application Guide.

 

Other permits may be necessary from the State of Kansas, especially for fill in the floodplain.  Kansas permit information is available below:

 

State of Kansas, Department of Agriculture, Division of Water Resources

Floodplain Regulations

Saline County Floodplain Regulations were adopted under Amendment 47 of Resolution 1254 on April 18th, 2018.  The official code and any updates are kept in the Planning and Zoning Office at 300 West Ash, Room 209.  For questions or comments please call the Saline County Floodplain Administrator at 785.309.5813.  The following is a copy of the code for your convenience.  

 

Article 11 Floodway (FW) and Floodway Fringe (FF) Overlay Districts

Section 11.01 Statutory Authorization, Findings of Fact, and Purposes

.01 Statutory Authorization

A.Approval of Draft Ordinance by Kansas Chief Engineer Prior to Adoption

The following floodplain management regulations, as written, were approved in draft form by the Chief Engineer of the Division of Water Resources of the Kansas Department of Agriculture on February 12, 2018.

B.Kansas Statutory Authorization

The Legislature of the State of Kansas has in K.S.A. 12-741 et seq, and specifically in K.S.A. 12-766, delegated the responsibility to local governmental units to adopt floodplain management regulations designed to protect the health, safety, and general welfare.  Therefore, the Board of County Commissioners of Saline County, Kansas ordains as follows:

 

.02 Findings of Fact

A.Flood Losses Resulting from Periodic Inundation

The special flood hazard areas of Saline County, Kansas, are subject to inundation which results in loss of life and property, health and safety hazards, disruption of commerce and governmental services, extraordinary public expenditures for flood protection and relief, and impairment of the tax base; all of which adversely affect the public health, safety and general welfare.

B.General Causes of the Flood Losses

These flood losses are caused by:

  1. The cumulative effect of development in any delineated floodplain causing increases in flood heights and velocities; and
  2. The occupancy of flood hazard areas by uses vulnerable to floods, hazardous to others, inadequately elevated, or otherwise unprotected from flood damages.

C.Methods Used To Analyze Flood Hazards

The Flood Insurance Study (FIS) that is the basis of this ordinance uses a standard engineering method of analyzing flood hazards, which consist of a series of interrelated steps.

  1. Selection of a base flood that is based upon engineering calculations, which permit a consideration of such flood factors as its expected frequency of occurrence, the area inundated, and the depth of inundation.  The base flood selected for this ordinance is representative of large floods, which are characteristic of what can be expected to occur on the particular streams subject to this ordinance.  It is in the general order of a flood which could be expected to have a one percent chance of occurrence in any one year as delineated on the Federal Insurance Administrator's FIS, and illustrative materials.
  2. Calculation of water surface profiles that are based on a standard hydraulic engineering analysis of the capacity of the stream channel and overbank areas to convey the regulatory flood.
  3. Computation of a floodway required to convey this flood without increasing flood heights more than one (1) foot at any point.
  4. Delineation of floodway encroachment lines within which no development is permitted that would cause any increase in flood height.
  5. Delineation of floodway fringe, i.e., that area outside the floodway encroachment lines, but still subject to inundation by the base flood.

 

.03 Statement of Purpose

It is the purpose of this ordinance to promote the public health, safety, and general welfare; to minimize those losses described in Section 11.01.02; to establish or maintain the community’s eligibility for participation in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) as defined in 44 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 59.22(a)(3); and to meet the requirements of 44 CFR 60.3(d) and K.A.R. 5-44-4 by applying the provisions of this ordinance to:

  1. Restrict or prohibit uses that are dangerous to health, safety, or property in times of flooding or cause undue increases in flood heights or velocities;
  2. Require uses vulnerable to floods, including public facilities that serve such uses, be provided with flood protection at the time of initial construction; and
  3. Protect individuals from buying lands that are unsuited for the intended development purposes due to the flood hazard.

 

Section 11.02 General Provisions

.01 Lands to which Ordinance Applies

This ordinance shall apply to all lands within the jurisdiction of Saline County, Kansas, identified as numbered and unnumbered A Zones, AE, AO and AH Zones on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) panels referenced on the associated FIRM Index dated April 18th, 2018. In all areas covered by this ordinance, no development shall be permitted except through the issuance of a floodplain development permit, granted by the Saline County Board of County Commissioners or its duly designated representative under such safeguards and restrictions as the Board of County Commissioners or the designated representative may reasonably impose for the promotion and maintenance of the general welfare, health of the inhabitants of the community.

The boundaries of the Flood Insurance Rate Map and its designated zones are determined visually.  If an exact location of the boundary is need, a licensed surveyor will provide a survey of the property showing the location of the flood zone relative to the structure or proposed building.

 

.02 Compliance

No development located within the special flood hazard areas of this community shall be located, extended, converted, or structurally altered without full compliance with the terms of this ordinance and other applicable regulations.

 

.03 Warning and Disclaimer of Liability

The degree of flood protection required by this resolution is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes and is based on engineering and scientific methods of study.  Larger floods may occur on rare occasions or the flood heights may be increased by man-made or natural causes, such as ice jams and bridge openings restricted by debris.  This resolution does not imply that areas outside the floodway and flood fringe or land uses permitted within such areas will be free from flooding or flood damage.  This resolution shall not create a liability on the part of Saline County, any officer or employee thereof, for any flood damages that may result from reliance on this ordinance or any administrative decision lawfully made there under.

 

.04 Abrogation and Greater Restrictions

It is not intended by this article to repeal, abrogate, or impair any existing easements, covenants, or deed restrictions.  However, where this article imposes greater restrictions, the provisions of this article will prevail.  All other resolutions inconsistent with this article are hereby repealed to the extent of the inconsistency only.

 

Section 11.03 Administration

.01 Designation of Floodplain Administrator

The zoning administrator is hereby appointed to administer and implement the provisions of this ordinance.

 

.02 Duties and Responsibilities of the Floodplain Administrator

Duties of the Floodplain Administrator shall include, but not be limited to:

  1. Review of all applications for floodplain development permits to assure that sites are reasonably safe from flooding and that the floodplain development permit requirements of this ordinance have been satisfied;
  2. Review of all applications for floodplain development permits for proposed development to assure that all necessary permits have been obtained from Federal, State, or local governmental agencies from which prior approval is required by Federal, State, or local law;
  3. Review all subdivision proposals and other proposed new development, including manufactured home parks or subdivisions, to determine whether such proposals will be reasonably safe from flooding;
  4. Issue floodplain development permits for all approved applications;
  5. Notify adjacent communities and the Division of Water Resources, Kansas Department of Agriculture, prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, and submit evidence of such notification to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA);
  6. Assure that the flood-carrying capacity is not diminished and shall be maintained within the altered or relocated portion of any watercourse; and
  7. Verify and maintain a record of the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) of the lowest floor, including basement, of all new or substantially improved structures;
  8. Verify and maintain a record of the actual elevation (in relation to mean sea level) that the new or substantially improved non-residential structures have been floodproofed;
  9. When floodproofing techniques are utilized for a particular non-residential structure, the floodplain administrator will require certification from a registered professional engineer or architect.

 

.03 Floodplain Development Permit

A floodplain development permit will be required for all proposed construction or other development, including the placement of manufactured homes.  No person, firm, corporation, or unit of government will initiate any development or substantial-improvement or cause the same to be done without first obtaining a separate floodplain development permit for each structure or other development. 

No permit for floodplain development will be granted for new construction, substantial-improvements, and other improvements, including the placement of manufactured homes, within any flood zone, unless the conditions of this code are satisfied.

 

.04 Application for Floodplain Development Permit

To obtain a floodplain development permit, the applicant will first file an application in writing on a form furnished for that purpose.  Every floodplain development permit application will:

  1. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by lot, block and tract, house and street address, or similar description that will readily identify and specifically locate the proposed structure or work;
  2. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the floodplain development permit;
  3. Indicate the use or occupancy for which the proposed work is intended;
  4. Indicate the assessed value of the structure and the fair market value of the improvement, if required by the floodplain administrator;
  5. Specify whether development is located in designated flood fringe or floodway;
  6. Identify the existing base flood elevation and the elevation of the proposed development;
  7. Give such other information as reasonably may be required by the floodplain administrator;
  8. Be accompanied by plans and specifications for proposed construction; and
  9. Be signed by the permittee or his authorized agent who may be required to submit evidence to indicate such authority.
  10. Provide a fee as directed by the Board of County Commissioners through a resolution.

 

Section 11.04 General Provisions for all Flood Zones (A, AE, AH, AO)

.01 General Standards

  1. No permit for floodplain development shall be granted for new construction, substantial-improvements, and other improvements, including the placement of manufactured homes, within any numbered or unnumbered A zones, AE, AO, and AH zones, unless the conditions of this section are satisfied.
  2. All areas identified as unnumbered A zones on the FIRM are subject to inundation of the one percent annual chance or 100-year flood; however, the base flood elevation is not provided.  Development within unnumbered A zones is subject to all provisions of this ordinance.  If Flood Insurance Study data is not available, the community shall obtain, review, and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation or floodway data currently available from Federal, State, or other sources.
  3.  Until a floodway is designated, no new construction, substantial improvements, or other development, including fill, shall be permitted within any unnumbered or numbered A zones, or AE zones on the FIRM, unless it is demonstrated that the cumulative effect of the proposed development, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the water surface elevation of the base flood more than one foot at any point within the community.
  4. All new construction, subdivision proposals, substantial improvements, prefabricated structures, placement of manufactured homes, and other developments will require:
  1. Design or adequate anchorage to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure resulting from hydrodynamic and hydrostatic loads, including the effects of buoyancy;
  2. Construction with materials resistant to flood damage;
  3. Utilization of methods and practices that minimize flood damages;
  4. All electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, air-conditioning equipment, and other service facilities be designed and/or located so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding; and
  5. New or replacement water supply systems and/or sanitary sewage systems will be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems and discharges from the systems into flood waters, and on-site waste disposal systems be located so as to avoid impairment or contamination. New septic tanks and lagoons will not be located within any flood zone.  Replacement systems will be installed according to the best practices available.
  6. No construction will be permitted within fifty (50) feet of the centerline of any watercourse, river, creek, stream, or tributary within any floodplain as indicated by the Saline County river centerline map.

 

.02 Residential Construction

New construction or substantial-improvement of any residential structures, including manufactured homes, will have the lowest floor, including basement (unless previously approved for a basement exemption), mechanical and HVAC equipment servicing the building elevated a minimum of two (2) feet above base flood elevationThe elevation of the lowest floor will be certified by an elevation certificate sealed by a licensed land surveyor or professional engineer.

A.Residential Basement Exemption

Basements are permitted in numbered A, AE and AH zones except in areas of a floodway under the following conditions:

  1. The basement is being altered or reconstructed (no new basements are permitted);
  2. Flood depths are three (3) feet or less;
  3. Flood velocities are five (5) feet per second or less; and
  4. Flood warning times are twelve (12) hours or greater.

B.Basement Construction Criteria

  1. All basements will be designed so that any basement area, together with attendant utilities and sanitary facilities below the flood proofed design level, is watertight with walls that are impermeable to the passage of water without human intervention;
  2. Basement walls will be built with the capability to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy resulting from flooding and will be designed so minimal structural damage will occur if forces on the basement exceed design loads;
  3. The bottom of the lowest exterior basement openings, such as doors and windows, must be placed at least two (2) feet above the one-percent change base flood elevation;
  4. The basement floor will not be lower than five (5) feet below the flood proofed design elevation. The flood proofed design elevation is two (2) feet higher than the one-percent chance base flood elevation;
  5. The land around the entire foundation must be filled at least to the one-percent change base flood elevation;
  6. Basements constructed in accordance with this regulation will not be used for sleeping purposes;
  7. A registered professional engineer or architect will certify that the flood proofing measures used in the structure satisfy the standards of this section.  This certification will include the specific elevation (in relation to mean sea level) to which the structure is flood proofed; and
  8. Saline County will certify that the structure has been built in accordance with this design.

 

.03 Nonresidential Construction

New construction or substantial-improvement of any commercial, industrial, or other  non‑residential structures, including manufactured homes, will have the lowest floor, including  basement,  mechanical and HVAC equipment servicing the building elevated  a minimum of two (2) feet above the base flood elevation or, together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be flood proofed so that below one foot above the base flood elevation the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy.  A registered professional  engineer or  architect  will  verify  that  the  standards  of  this  subsection  are  satisfied. The elevation of the lowest floor will be certified by an elevation certificate sealed by a licensed land surveyor or professional engineer.

 

.04 Enclosures Below Lowest Floor

All new construction and substantial-improvements, which fully enclose areas below lowest floor used solely for parking of vehicles, building access, or storage in an area other than a basement and that are subject to flooding will be designed to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the entry and exit of flood waters.  Designs for meeting this requirement must either be certified by a registered professional engineer or architect or meet or exceed the following minimum criteria:

  1. A minimum of two (2) openings having a total net area of not less than one (1) square inch for every square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding will be provided;
  2. The bottom of all opening will be no higher than one (1) foot above grade. 
  3. The openings will be provided on a minimum of two walls;
  4. Where internal walls create an enclosure or room openings must be provided for each room; and
  5. Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves, or other coverings or devices provided that they permit the automatic entry and exit of flood waters.  Only the open area of coverings will be calculated in the required opening.

 

.05 Accessory Structures

Accessory structures may be built at grade in all zoning districts provided:

A.Limitation on Structures

Structures used solely for parking and limited storage purposes, not attached to any other structure on the site, and of limited investment value may be constructed at-grade and wet-floodproofed provided:

  1. There is no human habitation or occupancy of the structure;
  2. There is no permanent retail, whole­sale, manufacturing, or home occupation use included in the structure;
  3. It is not larger than 400 square feet;
  4. The structure is of single-wall design;
  5. No disaster relief assistance under any program administered by any Federal agency will be paid for any repair or restoration costs of the accessory structure;

B.Construction Standards

  1. Equipment, machinery, or other contents must be protected from flood damage;
  2. Wet floodproofing construction techniques must be reviewed and approved by Saline County.  Saline County may require a licensed engineer prior to issuing any floodplain permit at the property owner’s expense.
  3. All electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, air-conditioning equipment, and other service facilities must be located one (1) foot above the base flood elevation (BFE) or contained within a floodproofed enclosure designed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding;  Saline County may require a licensed surveyor or engineer to verify the elevations.
  4. Must meet the general construction requirements of section 11.04.01;
  5. Must meet the enclosures below lowest floor requirements of section 11.04..04;
  6. The structures must comply with the provisions of the Floodway (FW) zone, if applicable. 

 

.06 Agricultural Structures

A.Limitation on Structures

Structures used solely for agricultural purposes in connection with the production, harvesting, storage, drying, or raising of agricultural commodities, including the raising of livestock may be constructed at-grade and wet-flood proofed provided:

  1. There is no human habitation or occupancy of the structure;
  2. There is no permanent retail, whole­sale, manufacturing, or home occupation use included in the structure;
  3. The structure is of single-wall design;
  4. No disaster relief assistance under any program administered by any Federal agency will be paid for any repair or restoration costs of the accessory structure;

B.Construction Standards

Any permit granted for an agricultural or accessory structure will be decided individually based on a case by case analysis of the buil­ding's unique circumstances. 

  1. Equipment, machinery, or other contents must be protected from flood damage;
  2. Wet floodproofing construction techniques must be reviewed and approved by Saline County.  Saline County may require a licensed engineer prior to issuing any floodplain permit at the property owner’s expense.
  3. All electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, air-conditioning equipment, and other service facilities must be located one (1) foot above the base flood elevation (BFE) or contained within a floodproofed enclosure designed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components during conditions of flooding;  Saline County may require a licensed surveyor or engineer to verify the elevations.
  4. Must meet the general construction requirements of section 11.04.01;
  5. Must meet the enclosures below lowest floor requirements of section 11.04..04;
  6. The structures must comply with the provisions of the Floodway (FW) zone, if applicable. 

 

.07 Manufactured Homes

All manufactured homes to be placed within all zones, on the community's FIRM will be required to be installed using methods and practices that minimize flood damage. For the purposes of this requirement, manufactured homes must be elevated and anchored to resist flotation, collapse, or lateral movement.  Methods of anchoring may include, but are not limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors.

The following standards are required for all manufactured homes whether the development is an individual home on a lot, part of a new manufactured home subdivision or park, or a replacement of an existing manufactured home:

  1. The lowest floor of the manufactured home, mechanical and HVAC equipment servicing the building is a minimum of two (2) feet above the base flood level; or
  2. The manufactured home chassis is supported by reinforced piers or other foundation elements of at least equivalent strength that are no less than thirty-six (36) inches in height above grade and are securely attached to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement.  This option only allowed in an existing manufactured home park.
  3. The elevation of the lowest floor will be certified by an elevation certificate sealed by a licensed land surveyor or professional engineer.

 

.08 Recreational Vehicles

Vehicles placed on sites within all zones on the community’s FIRM will be allowed when:

  1. It is located on the property for fewer than 180 consecutive days, or
  2. The vehicle is fully licensed and ready for highway use*, or
  3. The vehicle meets the permitting, elevation, and anchoring requirements for manufactured homes.

*A recreational vehicle is ready for highway use if it is on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick-disconnect type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions or skirting.

 

.09 Critical Facilities

  1. All new or substantially improved critical nonresidential facilities including, but not limited, to governmental buildings, police stations, fire stations, hospitals, orphanages, penal institutions, communication centers, water and sewer pumping stations, water and sewer treatment facilities, transportation maintenance facilities, places of public assembly, emergency aviation facilities, and schools shall be elevated above the .2 percent annual chance flood event, also referred to as the 500-year flood level or together with attendant utility and sanitary facilities, be floodproofed so that below the 500-year flood level the structure is water tight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and the effects of buoyancy.  A registered professional engineer or architect shall verify that the standards of this subsection are satisfied.  Such certification shall be provided to the floodplain administrator as set forth in Article 3, Section C(7)(8)(9).
  2. All critical facilities shall have access routes that are above the elevation of the 500-year flood.
  3. No critical facilities shall be constructed in any designated floodway.

 

.10 Storage of Material, Equipment and Hazardous Materials

  1. Storage of other material or equipment may be allowed if not subject to major damage by floods, firmly anchored to prevent flotation, or readily removable from the area within the time available after a flood warning.
  2. All hazardous material storage and handling sites will be located out of the special flood hazard area.

 

.11 Subdivision and Lot Split Applications

Subdivision proposals and other proposed new development, including manufactured home parks or subdivisions, located within special flood hazard areas are required to assure that:

  1. All proposals are consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
  2. All public utilities and facilities, such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems are located and constructed to minimize or eliminate flood damage;
  3. Adequate drainage is provided to reduce exposure to flood hazards;
  4. Lot sizes will be restricted to five (5) acres minimum lot size where the proposed lot contains more than 25 percent of land within the FF or FW zones; and
  5. All proposals for development, including proposals for manufactured home parks and subdivisions, of greater than five (5) acres or fifty (50) lots, whichever is lesser, include within such proposals base flood elevation data.

 

Section 11.05 Overriding Provisions for Unnumbered A Zones

All areas identified as unnumbered A zones on the FIRM are subject to inundation of the one percent annual chance or 100-year flood; however, the base flood elevation may not be provided.  Development within unnumbered A zones is subject to all provisions of this resolution.  If Flood Insurance Study data is not available, the community will obtain, review, and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation or floodway data currently available from Federal, State, or other sources.

 

Section 11.06 Overriding Provisions for Areas of Shallow Flooding (AO and AH Zones)

Located within the areas of special flood hazard are areas designated as AO or AH zones.  These areas have special flood hazards associated with base flood depths of one (1) to three (3) feet where a clearly defined channel does not exist and where the path of flooding is unpredictable and indeterminate.  The following provisions apply:

.01 AO Zones

  1. All new construction and substantial-improvements of residential structures, including manufactured homes, will have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet on the community's FIRM (at least two (2) feet if no depth number is specified).
  2. All new construction and substantial-improvements of any commercial, industrial, or other non-residential structures, including manufactured homes, will have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated above the highest adjacent grade at least as high as the depth number specified in feet on the community FIRM (at least two (2) feet if no depth number is specified) or together with attendant utilities and sanitary facilities be completely floodproofed to that so that the structure is watertight with walls substantially impermeable to the passage of water and with structural components having the capability of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and effects of buoyancy.
  3. Adequate drainage paths will be required around structures on slopes, in order to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures.

 

.02 AH Zones

Adequate drainage paths will be required around structures on slopes, in order to guide floodwaters around and away from proposed structures.

 

Section 11.07 Overriding Provisions for Designated and Undesignated Floodways (FW District)

Located within areas of special flood hazard are areas designated as floodways.  Since the floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of floodwaters that carry debris and potential projectiles, the following provisions shall apply:

  1. The community will select and adopt a regulatory floodway based on the principle that the area chosen for the regulatory floodway must be designed to carry the waters of the base flood without increasing the water surface elevation of that flood more than one (1) foot at any point.
  2. The community will prohibit any encroachments, including fill, new construction, substantial improvements, and other development within the adopted regulatory floodway unless it has been demonstrated through hydrologic and hydraulic analyses performed in accordance with standard engineering practice that the proposed encroachment would not result in any increase in flood levels within the community during the occurrence of the base flood discharge. Construction and substantial-improvements will comply with all applicable flood hazard reduction provisions.
  3. A community may permit encroachments within the adopted regulatory floodway that would result in an increase in base flood elevations, provided that the community first applies for a conditional FIRM and floodway revision, fulfills the requirements for such revisions as established under the provisions of 44 CFR 65.12, and receives the approval of FEMA.
  4. In unnumbered A zones, the community will obtain, review, and reasonably utilize any base flood elevation or floodway data currently available from Federal, State, or other sources.
  5. Fill material is prohibited in floodways.

 

Copyright Saline County Kansas© 2017. All Rights Reserved.